○ 就労人口の約4割が農業に従事しており、主な農産物は、小麦・大麦等の 穀類、てんさい、ばれいしょ、トマト、オリーブ等。
○ 水産業は、大西洋沿岸は寒流が流れ込むため、豊富なプランクトンによ り鰯などの回遊魚の他、白身魚、たこ・いか、甲殻類などが主要な水産資 源となっており、アフリカ大陸トップ級の漁業国(沿岸漁業の年間漁獲高 は約128万トン(2014年))。
○ かつて、日本の輸入たこの7割がモロッコ産の時期もあったが、2004年 頃より資源状況の悪化により大きく漁獲量が減少。現在は、日本の輸入た この3割がモロッコ産(2015年。日本のたこの輸入先国としてはモーリタニアに 続き第2位。)。
The fishing industry
As the only North African country without oil, Morocco has had to make the most of its other advantages. The ocean off Morocco's Atlantic coast is one of the richest fishing grounds in the world. Altogether, Morocco's coast line covers 2,141 miles along the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean. Fishing has been a major industry in Morocco since the 1930's and the industry experienced tremendous growth during the 1980's. Since 1983, the annual catch has exceeded 430,000 tons. In 1986 and 1991 landings were the largest ever; both were more than 594,000 tons. These record catches demonstrate the increased maturity of the Moroccan fishing industry, which now accounts for approximately 45% of agricultural exports. In 1990, exports of fish and fish products were equivalent to 8% of total exports. Over 100,000 Moroccans are employed in the fishing industry. The industry's importance is underscored in both the employment sector and by the over $600 million of foreign exchange that is reaped from the industry each year.
In 1990, the Government of Morocco began a series of measures, including port improvement and financial incentives that would increase a move by Moroccan fishing fleets to Moroccan ports. Before 1992, the majority of Morocco's high sea fleet was based in Las Palmas in the Canary Islands and its contribution to the Moroccan economy was limited. Thanks in part to the aforementioned measures, by 1992 all but one or two of Morocco's high sea fleet were based in Moroccan ports. The port city of Agadir is home to most of the fleet, while Tan Tan also maintains a number of boats. The relocation of the high sea fleet underscores the evolution of the Moroccan fishing industry and its development into a rival for Spain. Moreover, this development posited Morocco for confrontation with other fleets in her waters, which is exactly what occurred between Morocco and Spain.
EU–Morocco Fisheries Partnership Agreement:
The protocol of the fisheries agreement between Morocco and the European Union (EU) is an exemplary model of cooperation and an important tool to promote relations and good neighborliness with this community partner, Moroccan minister of agriculture and marine fisheries, Aziz Akhannouch, said
A large number of Member States (Spain, Portugal, Italy, France, Germany, Lithuania, Latvia, Netherlands, Ireland, Poland and United Kingdom) have an interest in the Fisheries Partnership Agreement with Morocco, which includes 6 fishing categories exploited by both industrial and small-scale fleet segments. The total financial envelope for Morocco is estimated at 40m EUR. More precisely, the total cost of the new Protocol to the EU will be 30m EUR a year, of which 16m EUR compensates Morocco for access to the resource. The remaining 14m EUR will be assigned to the support of the fisheries sector in the country whilst the ship owners' contribution is estimated at 10m EUR.
For Spain for example, the economic relations between the two countries are very strong given the two countries shared history and geographical proximity, recalling the setting up of thousands of Spanish companies in Morocco and the presence of a large Moroccan community in Spain.
This protocol reflects the will of both parties to create a strong and mutually beneficial partnership that promotes consultation, dialogue and the reconciliation of the positions.
Morocco welcomed the return of Spanish fishing vessels to Moroccan waters and the contribution of this protocol to the revival of the fishing activity in the Iberian Peninsula. Also, we should know that Spain is by far the largest customer of Moroccan fisheries products with 29 pc of the value of exports in 2015 (about 500 million Euros).
Concerning the rational management of marine resources to ensure their sustainable exploitation, Morocco makes sure that the activities of EU vessels in the national waters are monitored and subject to an annual evaluation to measure the effect of any interaction with the national fleet.
Moroccan’s Tomato market.
About the country
• Population: 34 million
• AVERAGE income (GNI): EUR 2,161 per year (EUR 180) per month1
• 41% of the population live in rural areas
• 75% of rural poor people depend on agriculture for their livelihood
Morocco is the gateway to Europe and at the same time to Africa. This ideal geographical position makes the kingdom an important export platform to the European countries, the US and a lot of
other market such as Russia.
The Moroccan tomato:
Morocco is one of the world's major exporters of tomatoes. With a share of 7% of total
international exports, the kingdom currently ranks forth, behind Mexico, the Netherlands and Spain,
and id the EU's main supplier of tomatoes by far among countries outside the EU.
The export potential in tomatoes has increased steadily and currently reaches 450.000t each year, and 50% of total vegetable exports. In cultivation, major changes have been emerging for some time.
While round tomatoes dominated production for a long time, the product range has now been extended considerably.
Small diameter tomato varieties such as cocktail, cherry and plum tomatoes now account for 30% of export deliveries.
In the export strategy of Moroccan operators, significant changes have been emerging in the recent times.
Due to restrictions on exports to EU markets, increased orientation toward the Russian market has been observed. Deliveries of Moroccan tomatoes to Russia increased considerably.
To meet the European trade requirement, the Moroccan export companies have in recent years made a great efforts to comply with European standards in terms of quality assurance and regulations on maximum residue levels. A central watchdog role for the Moroccan exports is played by the Establishment Autonome de Controle et de Coordination des Exportations to assure compliance of export products with the legal regulations in the EU, the EACCE has made it mandatory in all packing stations to maintain registers for all phytosanitary measures, to have a monitoring plan and to carry out residue analysis. Independent laboratories verify the results.
A major player in the marketing of Moroccan fruit and vegetables is the multimodal platform of the international Market of St.Chares in Perpignan, located directly on the Spanish-French border. In addition to the residue investigations already performed in Morocco, all Moroccan products are
subject to a further inspection of incoming goods within the scope of "Demarche Qualite Saint Charles"
In Morocco, tomatoes are among the main fresh agri-food products intended for exports and play significant socio-economic role. Therefore the exports of this branch exceed the amount of MAD 3.3 billion .At the social level, the growing tomatoes intended for exports generates an average of nearly 9 million working days per year both the level of production, packaging and transformation.
Most Moroccan'tomatoes are grown in the Souss-Massa-Dr_a region, one of the poorest regions in
Morocco. The agricultural sector is one of the most important work providers in the region and employs 70,000 workers, who are mainly women. These workers _ who pick and pack hundred thousands of tons of tomatoes every year _ perform their jobs under very poor labor conditions, earning only poverty wages.
The Souss-Massa region is the main tomato production area in Morocco. This is due to the favorable weather conditions and the availability of relatively cheap land.8 This region produces approximately 80% of Moroccan tomatoes and alone employs 70,000 people, around 70% of whom are women. Yet SoussMassa has the third highest percentage of people living in poverty and the highest percentage of poverty severity in Morocco. Indeed, living conditions in production areas are often very poor: there is a lack of public infrastructure and many areas are not linked to public sanitation networks. Low wages keep workers in these areas, as they are often unable to afford to move to better and safer housing.
Moroccan tomato workers face many challenges, in particular:
･ There are two minimum wages in Morocco, one for agricultural workers (SMAG) and one for industrial workers (SMIG). The one for agricultural workers is much lower. The official minimum wage for agricultural workers is 1,813DH (_167) per month, which is just above the national poverty threshold for rural households of 1,745DH or (_160) per month, set in 2004
･ Although Morocco is the leading non-European supplier of tomatoes to the European Union, the majority of workers in the Moroccan tomato sector earn an extremely low wage that is not sufficient to cover their most basic needs. As a result, they often live in poor conditions and cannot afford a nutritious diet for themselves and their family.
Lack of freedom of association
In theory, agricultural workers have the legal right to form or join a trade union, however, local reports indicate that freedom of association is often not respected by companies. Employees are dismissed and harassed because of their trade union affiliations. The Moroccan 'Code Penal' states that workers who strike to raise their wages or 'impair the free exercise of industry' may be imprisoned for up to two years or face a fine of up to DH 5000 (EUR 444).
The majority of workers are women. For example, in rural Morocco 92% of working women are employed in the agricultural sector, they tend to be poorly educated and don't have proper employment contracts. It is not unusual for women to be fired if they become pregnant and sexual harassment is not uncommon. There have been improvements at some companies in recent years, but many women still face significant discrimination.
To summarize, the Moroccan tomato was and still to this time a very important factor for the Moroccan economy and also for the supply of the European market, however, behind the scene, young people and also families who are workers in this sectors earn a pitifully low rage not even enough to cover their daily life basic needs. Therefore, many actions are needed to be taken to help the worker earn a respectful wage and also encourage them to help the development of the tomato 'sector in Morocco.
Grenn Morocco Plan
The Kingdom of Morocco is located in the northwest corner of Africa and, at its closest point, is less than 15 kilometers away from Spain. With a population of 34 million inhabitants in 2016, Morocco is a middle-income, emerging Arab and Muslim country, and is considered a developing country by international standar
Agriculture in Morocco is an extremely important sector since the agriculture employs about 40% of the country's workforce and contributes with almost 19% of Morocco's GDP. Over 90% the country's agriculture is rain-dependent and thus this output varies greatly from year to year.
Moroccan agricultural production consists mainly of wheat, sugar beet, oranges, tomatoes, potatoes, olives, and olive oil. Morocco produces enough food for domestic consumption except for grains, sugar, coffee and tea; Morocco imports more than 40% of grains for its local consumption. Morocco is a net exporter of fish as well as fruits and vegetables. High quality Moroccan agricultural products are usually exported to Europe.
Morocco has some huge opportunities as:
Very strong growth in domestic demand.
Strong growth in overall demand for Mediterranean type products.
Recognized comparative advantages in key products.
European and U.S market easily accessible in terms of logistics and customs.
However, it faces some serious challenges:
Large number of farmers are vulnerable.
Lack of administrative flexibility concerning land issues.
Industry framework sometimes out of step with the fundamental issues relating to deregulation.
Ministry’s managerial structures need to be modernized.
Water demand management policy poorly implemented resulting in overexploitation.
Moreover, and considering the importance of the agricultural sector, any shortage or excess rainfall has an immediate effect on the economy as a whole.
Therefore, the new agricultural strategy, Green Morocco Plan (GMP), established by the Ministry of Fishing, aims to consolidate the success achieved and to meet new challenges facing Morocco’s competitiveness and opening of markets.
Green Morocco Plan designed to promote the development of the entire agricultural and territorial potential. The new Moroccan agricultural sector is mean to be open to all using different strategies on the targeted issues. Green Morocco Plan will contribute to GDP with 174 billion dirhams, creating 1.15 million jobs by 2020 and triple the income of nearly 3 million people in rural areas.
The implementation of the GMP is based on two pillars and several cross cutting programs.
The first pillar concerns the accelerated development of a modern and competitive agriculture, vital for the national economy, through the realization of a thousand new projects with high added value in both productions and agro-food.
The second pillar aims to support to smallholder agriculture through the implementation or professionalization of 545 projects of small farms in difficult rural areas, thereby promoting greater productivity, greater recovery of production and sustainability of farm income. This second pillar also seeks the conversion of cereal crops with higher value added and processing of local products.
Japan and Morocco’s green plan:
On March 4, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) signed a loan agreement with the Government of Morocco in Rabat .The loan amount is 16.347 billion yen and aims to support the Green Morocco Plan Support Program.
The agreement was signed between the economy minister Mohamed Boussaid and JICA’s resident representative Hitoshi Tojima, in the presence of agriculture minister Aziz Akhannouch, representatives of the foreign ministry and AfDB resident representative Yacine Fal, the statement recalled. The loan, in collaboration with the African Development Bank AfDB, was aimed at funding the second phase of the program of support for Morocco's green plan (PAPMV2), as part of the Accelerated Co-financing Facility for Africa (ACFA).
The aim is to reinforce competitiveness of the agricultural sector for an inclusive promotion of value chains in the field of agriculture and an inclusive and green economic growth through a more sustainable management of natural resources.
Exchange of signature between Mr.Tojima, Chief Representative of JICA Morocco Office, and Mr. Bousaid, the Minister of Economy and Fiance